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Neurodiversity: Executive Function

Executive Function Defined

The executive functions are a set of processes that all have to do with managing oneself and one's resources in order to achieve a goal. It is an umbrella term for the neurologically-based skills involving mental control and self-regulation.

Source: LD Online

Executive Function, Research from PubMed, Free Articles




The role of affective control in emotion regulation during adolescence.


Schweizer S, Gotlib IH, Blakemore SJ.


Emotion. 2020 Feb;20(1):80-86. doi: 10.1037/emo0000695. Review.


PMID: 31961183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Sex differences in self-regulation in early, middle and late adolescence: A large-scale cross-sectional study.


Tetering MAJV, Laan AMV, Kogel CH, Groot RHM, Jolles J.


PLoS One. 2020 Jan 13;15(1):e0227607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227607. eCollection 2020.


PMID: 31929576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.


Ekblom MM, Ekblom ÖB, Börjesson M, Bergström G, Jern C, Wallin A.


Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec 16;16(24). pii: E5136. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16245136.


PMID: 31888199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Correlation between Executive Network Integrity and Sarcopenia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.


Lee CY, Chen HL, Chen PC, Chen YS, Chiang PL, Wang CK, Lu CH, Chen MH, Chou KH, Huang YC, Lin WC.


Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec 4;16(24). pii: E4884. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16244884.


PMID: 31817127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.


Bojsen-Møller E, Boraxbekk CJ, Ekblom Ö, Blom V, Ekblom MM.


Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 27;16(23). pii: E4721. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16234721.


PMID: 31783476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Vitamin D Supplementation and Cognition in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial.


Byrn MA, Adams W, Penckofer S, Emanuele MA.


J Diabetes Res. 2019 Oct 30;2019:5696391. doi: 10.1155/2019/5696391. eCollection 2019.


PMID: 31781666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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A Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Program for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatric and Neurological Conditions: A Review That Supports Its Efficacy.


Gómez-Gastiasoro A, Peña J, Ibarretxe-Bilbao N, Lucas-Jiménez O, Díez-Cirarda M, Rilo O, Montoya-Murillo G, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Ojeda N.


Behav Neurol. 2019 Oct 21;2019:4647134. doi: 10.1155/2019/4647134. eCollection 2019. Review.


PMID: 31772682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Global Burden of Small Vessel Disease-Related Brain Changes on MRI Predicts Cognitive and Functional Decline.


Jokinen H, Koikkalainen J, Laakso HM, Melkas S, Nieminen T, Brander A, Korvenoja A, Rueckert D, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Madureira S, Verdelho A, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, Waldemar G, Chabriat H, Hennerici M, O'Brien J, Inzitari D, Lötjönen J, Pantoni L, Erkinjuntti T.


Stroke. 2020 Jan;51(1):170-178. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026170. Epub 2019 Nov 8.


PMID: 31699021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Prevalence Of Chronic Hypercapnia In Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Data From The HOmeVent Registry.


Dreher M, Neuzeret PC, Windisch W, Martens D, Hoheisel G, Gröschel A, Woehrle H, Fetsch T, Graml A, Köhnlein T.


Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019 Oct 18;14:2377-2384. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S222803. eCollection 2019.


PMID: 31695357 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids status and cognitive function in young women.


Cook RL, Parker HM, Donges CE, O'Dwyer NJ, Cheng HL, Steinbeck KS, Cox EP, Franklin JL, Garg ML, O'Connor HT.


Lipids Health Dis. 2019 Nov 6;18(1):194. doi: 10.1186/s12944-019-1143-z.


PMID: 31694658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Sahaj Samadhi meditation vs a Health Enhancement Program in improving late-life depression severity and executive function: study protocol for a two-site, randomized controlled trial.


Peckham SB, Ionson E, Nassim M, Ojha K, Palaniyappan L, Gati J, Thebérge J, Lazosky A, Speechley M, Barušs I, Rej S, Vasudev A.


Trials. 2019 Oct 24;20(1):605. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3682-z.


PMID: 31651355 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Association among Executive Function, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Youth.


Borkertienė V, Stasiulis A, Zacharienė B, Kyguolienė L, Bacevičienė R.


Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Oct 8;55(10). pii: E677. doi: 10.3390/medicina55100677.


PMID: 31597316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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ADHD and subthreshold symptoms in childhood and life outcomes at 40 years in a prospective birth-risk cohort.


Schiavone N, Virta M, Leppämäki S, Launes J, Vanninen R, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Immonen S, Järvinen I, Lehto E, Michelsson K, Hokkanen L.


Psychiatry Res. 2019 Nov;281:112574. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112574. Epub 2019 Sep 25.


PMID: 31590105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article


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Prenatal lead exposure and childhood executive function and behavioral difficulties in project viva.


Fruh V, Rifas-Shiman SL, Amarasiriwardena C, Cardenas A, Bellinger DC, Wise LA, White RF, Wright RO, Oken E, Claus Henn B.


Neurotoxicology. 2019 Dec;75:105-115. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.09.006. Epub 2019 Sep 9.


PMID: 31513824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article


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Mood congruency effects are mediated by shifts in salience and central executive network efficiency.


Provenzano J, Verduyn P, Daniels N, Fossati P, Kuppens P.


Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2019 Sep 30;14(9):987-995. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz065.


PMID: 31506691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Serum BDNF and GDNF in Chinese male patients with deficit schizophrenia and their relationships with neurocognitive dysfunction.


Tang X, Zhou C, Gao J, Duan W, Yu M, Xiao W, Zhang X, Dong H, Wang X, Zhang X.


BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 16;19(1):254. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2231-3.


PMID: 31420036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Suicidal risk and executive functions in major depressive disorder: a study protocol.


Roca M, Del Amo AR, Riera-Serra P, Pérez-Ara MA, Castro A, Roman Juan J, García-Toro M, García-Pazo P, Gili M.


BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 16;19(1):253. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2233-1.


PMID: 31420027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Development of dopaminergic genetic associations with visuospatial, verbal and social working memory.


Dumontheil I, Kilford EJ, Blakemore SJ.


Dev Sci. 2020 Mar;23(2):e12889. doi: 10.1111/desc.12889. Epub 2019 Aug 6.


PMID: 31336006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Evaluation of the spatial variability in the major resting-state networks across human brain functional atlases.


Doucet GE, Lee WH, Frangou S.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Oct 15;40(15):4577-4587. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24722. Epub 2019 Jul 19.


PMID: 31322303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Cognitive functioning as a predictor of employment status in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.


van Gorp DAM, van der Hiele K, Heerings MAP, Jongen PJ, van der Klink JJL, Reneman MF, Arnoldus EPJ, Beenakker EAC, van Eijk JJJ, Frequin STFM, de Gans K, Hoitsma E, Mostert JP, Verhagen WIM, Zemel D, Visser LH, Middelkoop HAM.


Neurol Sci. 2019 Dec;40(12):2555-2564. doi: 10.1007/s10072-019-03999-w. Epub 2019 Jul 19.


PMID: 31321625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Electroencephalography theta/beta ratio covaries with mind wandering and functional connectivity in the executive control network.


van Son D, de Rover M, De Blasio FM, van der Does W, Barry RJ, Putman P.


Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019 Sep;1452(1):52-64. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14180. Epub 2019 Jul 16.


PMID: 31310007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Microstructural abnormalities in callosal fibers and their relationship with cognitive function in schizophrenia: A tract-specific analysis study.


Ohoshi Y, Takahashi S, Yamada S, Ishida T, Tsuda K, Tsuji T, Terada M, Shinosaki K, Ukai S.


Brain Behav. 2019 Aug;9(8):e01357. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1357. Epub 2019 Jul 8.


PMID: 31283112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Individuals in the prediabetes stage exhibit reduced hippocampal tail volume and executive dysfunction.


Dong S, Dongwei L, Zhang J, Liang J, Sun Z, Fang J.


Brain Behav. 2019 Aug;9(8):e01351. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1351. Epub 2019 Jun 25.


PMID: 31240857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Cognitive Effects of Adding Caloric Restriction to Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults with Obesity.


Hugenschmidt CE, Leng X, Lyles M, Michael L, Dougherty A, Babcock P, Baker LD, Brinkley TE, Nicklas BJ.


Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Aug;27(8):1266-1274. doi: 10.1002/oby.22525. Epub 2019 Jun 14.


PMID: 31199592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Brain biomarkers and cognition across adulthood.


Tsapanou A, Habeck C, Gazes Y, Razlighi Q, Sakhardande J, Stern Y, Salthouse TA.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Sep;40(13):3832-3842. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24634. Epub 2019 May 21.


PMID: 31111980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Positive Affect and Well-Being in Huntington's Disease Moderates the Association Between Functional Impairment and HRQOL Outcomes.


Ready RE, Boileau NR, Barton SK, Lai JS, McCormack MK, Cella D, Fritz NE, Paulsen JS, Carlozzi NE.


J Huntingtons Dis. 2019;8(2):221-232. doi: 10.3233/JHD-180341.


PMID: 31045519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Making Sense of the Cognitive Task of Medication Reconciliation Using a Card Sorting Task.


Bitan Y, Parmet Y, Greenfield G, Teng S, Cook RI, Nunnally ME.


Hum Factors. 2019 Dec;61(8):1315-1325. doi: 10.1177/0018720819837037. Epub 2019 Mar 26.


PMID: 30912979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Altered ability to access a clinically relevant control network in patients remitted from major depressive disorder.


Figueroa CA, Cabral J, Mocking RJT, Rapuano KM, van Hartevelt TJ, Deco G, Expert P, Schene AH, Kringelbach ML, Ruhé HG.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Jun 15;40(9):2771-2786. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24559. Epub 2019 Mar 12.


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Effects of repetitive exercise and thermal stress on human cognitive processing.


Shibasaki M, Namba M, Kamijo YI, Ito T, Kakigi R, Nakata H.


Physiol Rep. 2019 Feb;7(4):e14003. doi: 10.14814/phy2.14003.


PMID: 30806993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Cognition and Ultrasound-Based Vascular Strain Indices.


Meshram NH, Jackson D, Varghese T, Mitchell CC, Wilbrand SM, Dempsey RJ, Hermann BP.


Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2019 Jan 24;35(1):46-55. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acz006.


PMID: 30805597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Differential effects of split and continuous sleep on neurobehavioral function and glucose tolerance in sleep-restricted adolescents.


Lo JC, Twan DCK, Karamchedu S, Lee XK, Ong JL, Van Rijn E, Gooley JJ, Chee MWL.


Sleep. 2019 May 1;42(5). pii: zsz037. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsz037.


PMID: 30753648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Recreational use of GHB is associated with alterations of resting state functional connectivity of the central executive and default mode networks.


Raposo Pereira F, Zhutovsky P, Mcmaster MTB, Polderman N, de Vries YDAT, van den Brink W, van Wingen GA.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Jun 1;40(8):2413-2421. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24532. Epub 2019 Feb 5.


PMID: 30720906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Generalizing age effects on brain structure and cognition: A two-study comparison approach.


Jockwitz C, Mérillat S, Liem F, Oschwald J, Amunts K, Caspers S, Jäncke L.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Jun 1;40(8):2305-2319. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24524. Epub 2019 Jan 22.


PMID: 30666760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Gray matter volume covariance networks associated with dual-task cost during walking-while-talking.


Tripathi S, Verghese J, Blumen HM.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 May;40(7):2229-2240. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24520. Epub 2019 Jan 21.


PMID: 30664283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Measuring and Predicting Individual Differences in Executive Functions at 14 Months: A Longitudinal Study.


Devine RT, Ribner A, Hughes C.


Child Dev. 2019 Sep;90(5):e618-e636. doi: 10.1111/cdev.13217. Epub 2019 Jan 21.


PMID: 30663776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Unity and diversity of executive functions in creativity.


Zabelina DL, Friedman NP, Andrews-Hanna J.


Conscious Cogn. 2019 Feb;68:47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.12.005. Epub 2019 Jan 8.


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A pilot dose-response study of the acute effects of haskap berry extract (Lonicera caerulea L.) on cognition, mood, and blood pressure in older adults.


Bell L, Williams CM.


Eur J Nutr. 2019 Dec;58(8):3325-3334. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1877-9. Epub 2018 Dec 10.


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Action Control Deficits in Patients With Essential Tremor.


Hughes S, Claassen DO, van den Wildenberg WPM, Phibbs FT, Bradley EB, Wylie SA, van Wouwe NC.


J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2019 Feb;25(2):156-164. doi: 10.1017/S1355617718001054. Epub 2018 Dec 3.


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Aerobic Fitness Level Moderates the Association Between Cannabis Use and Executive Functioning and Psychomotor Speed Following Abstinence in Adolescents and Young Adults.


Wade NE, Wallace AL, Swartz AM, Lisdahl KM.


J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2019 Feb;25(2):134-145. doi: 10.1017/S1355617718000966. Epub 2018 Nov 26.


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Cognitive Indicators of Preclinical Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia in MAPT Carriers.


Cheran G, Wu L, Lee S, Manoochehri M, Cines S, Fallon E, Lynch T, Heidebrink J, Paulson H, Goldman J, Huey E, Cosentino S.


J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2019 Feb;25(2):184-194. doi: 10.1017/S1355617718001005. Epub 2018 Nov 21.


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Time-Compressed Speech Identification Is Predicted by Auditory Neural Processing, Perceptuomotor Speed, and Executive Functioning in Younger and Older Listeners.


Dias JW, McClaskey CM, Harris KC.


J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2019 Feb;20(1):73-88. doi: 10.1007/s10162-018-00703-1. Epub 2018 Nov 19.


PMID: 30456729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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Social decision-making in the brain: Input-state-output modelling reveals patterns of effective connectivity underlying reciprocal choices.


Shaw D, Czekóová K, Gajdoš M, Staněk R, Špalek J, Brázdil M.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Feb 1;40(2):699-712. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24446. Epub 2018 Nov 15.


PMID: 30431199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article


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A prospective study of alcohol involvement and the dual-systems model of adolescent risk-taking during late adolescence and emerging adulthood.


Ellingson JM, Corley R, Hewitt JK, Friedman NP.


Addiction. 2019 Apr;114(4):653-661. doi: 10.1111/add.14489. Epub 2018 Dec 5.


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Association Between Endothelial Function and Cognitive Performance in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease During Cardiac Rehabilitation.


Saleem M, Herrmann N, Dinoff A, Mazereeuw G, Oh PI, Goldstein BI, Kiss A, Shammi P, Lanctôt KL.


Psychosom Med. 2019 Feb/Mar;81(2):184-191. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000651.


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Comparing Self to Peers in Percentile Equivalents during Cognitive Testing: More Accurate Self-Appraisal Estimates are Associated with Greater Ability and Less Reliance on the Representativeness Heuristic.


Rothlind J, Kraybill M, Dukarm P.


Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2019 Jul 26;34(5):690-699. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acy077.


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Alterations in intrinsic fronto-thalamo-parietal connectivity are associated with cognitive control deficits in psychotic disorders.


Lencer R, Yao L, Reilly JL, Keedy SK, McDowell JE, Keshavan MS, Pearlson GD, Tamminga CA, Gershon ES, Clementz BA, Lui S, Sweeney JA.


Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Jan;40(1):163-174. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24362. Epub 2018 Sep 10.


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Functional Brain Alterations Associated With Cognitive Control in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.


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Poorer Visual Acuity Is Associated with Declines in Cognitive Performance Across Multiple Cognitive Domains: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.


Dearborn PJ, Elias MF, Sullivan KJ, Sullivan CE, Robbins MA.


J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2018 Aug;24(7):746-754. doi: 10.1017/S1355617718000358. Epub 2018 Jun 21.


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Linked 4-Way Multimodal Brain Differences in Schizophrenia in a Large Chinese Han Population.


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Multimodal Brain Changes in First-Episode Mania: A Voxel-Based Morphometry, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Connectivity Study.


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Brain Arterial Diameters and Cognitive Performance: The Northern Manhattan Study.


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Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Among HIV-Infected Latinos in the United States.


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Cross-Disorder Cognitive Impairments in Youth Referred for Neuropsychiatric Evaluation.


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Association of Sleep Quality on Memory-Related Executive Functions in Middle Age.


Rana BK, Panizzon MS, Franz CE, Spoon KM, Jacobson KC, Xian H, Ancoli-Israel S, Lyons M, Kremen WS.


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Systematic Reviews, from PubMed, on Executive Function (Updated 10/29/20)


Efficacy of nicotine administration on obsessions and compulsions in OCD: a systematic review.

Piacentino D, Maraone A, Roselli V, Berardelli I, Biondi M, Kotzalidis GD, Pasquini M.

Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2020 Sep 30;19:57. doi: 10.1186/s12991-020-00309-z. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 33014119 Free PMC article. Review.


The relationship between chronic health conditions and cognitive deficits in children, adolescents, and young adults with down syndrome: A systematic review.

Gandy KC, Castillo HA, Ouellette L, Castillo J, Lupo PJ, Jacola LM, Rabin KR, Raghubar KP, Gramatges MM.

PLoS One. 2020 Sep 11;15(9):e0239040. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239040. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32915911 Free PMC article.


Effects of Exercise Training Interventions on Executive Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Chen FT, Etnier JL, Chan KH, Chiu PK, Hung TM, Chang YK.

Sports Med. 2020 Aug;50(8):1451-1467. doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01292-x.

PMID: 32447717 Free PMC article. Review.


The effects of cognitive-motor training interventions on executive functions in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Wollesen B, Wildbredt A, van Schooten KS, Lim ML, Delbaere K.

Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2020 Jul 2;17:9. doi: 10.1186/s11556-020-00240-y. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32636957 Free PMC article. Review.


Effectiveness of Exergaming in Improving Cognitive and Physical Function in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Systematic Review.

Zhao Y, Feng H, Wu X, Du Y, Yang X, Hu M, Ning H, Liao L, Chen H, Zhao Y.

JMIR Serious Games. 2020 Jun 30;8(2):e16841. doi: 10.2196/16841.

PMID: 32602841 Free PMC article. Review.


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alterations in Resting Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ge F, Yuan M, Li Y, Zhang W.

Psychiatry Investig. 2020 Jan;17(1):9-20. doi: 10.30773/pi.2019.0112. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

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Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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