Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Neurodiversity: Neurodiversity

Neurodiversity Defined

Although there is broad diversity across the population, some individuals are affected by neurological differences that make it particularly challenging for their communication, self-expression and interactions with others. These neurological differences include autism (ASD), Asperger's syndrome, ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia and tics.

The environments within which these individuals learn, work and live can either facilitate or inhibit their growth and development. 

The purpose of this initiative is to create environments that will maximally facilitate these individuals to grow and achieve their full potential.

Source: NeurodiversityHub

Articles on Neurodiversity

Guidelines on Neurodiversity

FREE PubMed Research on Neurodiversity (Updated 10/29/20)


What Contributes to Stigma Towards Autistic University Students and Students with Other Diagnoses?

Gillespie-Lynch K, Daou N, Obeid R, Reardon S, Khan S, Goldknopf EJ.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Jun 5:1-17. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04556-7. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32504342 Free PMC article.


CChildren diagnosed with "ASD" are first of all … children.

Paglia L.

Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2020 Mar;21(1):8. doi: 10.23804/ejpd.2020.21.01.01.

PMID: 32183520


The Storytelling Brain: How Neuroscience Stories Help Bridge the Gap between Research and Society.

Martinez-Conde S, Alexander RG, Blum D, Britton N, Lipska BK, Quirk GJ, Swiss JI, Willems RM, Macknik SL.

J Neurosci. 2019 Oct 16;39(42):8285-8290. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1180-19.2019.

PMID: 31619498 Free PMC article. Review.


Humanism in medicine: The critical role of pediatricians in autism spectrum disorder.

Loyacono N, Ferreira ML, Iermoli R.

Arch Argent Pediatr. 2019 Jun 1;117(3):195-197. doi: 10.5546/aap.2019.eng.195.

PMID: 31063308 English, Spanish.


'People should be allowed to do what they like': Autistic adults' views and experiences of stimming.

Kapp SK, Steward R, Crane L, Elliott D, Elphick C, Pellicano E, Russell G.

Autism. 2019 Oct;23(7):1782-1792. doi: 10.1177/1362361319829628. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

PMID: 30818970 Free PMC article.


Evolutionary-developmental modeling of neurodiversity and psychopathology.

Oller DK.

Behav Brain Sci. 2019;42:e19. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X18001103. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

PMID: 30853733 Free PMC article.


Neurodiversity and Artistic Performance Characteristic of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Masataka N.

Front Psychol. 2018 Dec 18;9:2594. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02594. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 30619003 Free PMC article.


Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Comprehensive Approach to Medical Care.

Kripke C.

Am Fam Physician. 2018 May 15;97(10):649-656.

PMID: 29763271


Neurodiversity, Giftedness, and Aesthetic Perceptual Judgment of Music in Children with Autism.

Masataka N.

Front Psychol. 2017 Sep 22;8:1595. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01595. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 29018372 Free PMC article.


"For a Long Time Our Voices have been Hushed": Using Student Perspectives to Develop Supports for Neurodiverse College Students.

Gillespie-Lynch K, Bublitz D, Donachie A, Wong V, Brooks PJ, D'Onofrio J.

Front Psychol. 2017 Apr 18;8:544. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00544. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28458645 Free PMC article.


Transcranial Electric Stimulation for Precision Medicine: A Spatiomechanistic Framework.

Yavari F, Nitsche MA, Ekhtiari H.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Apr 13;11:159. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00159. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28450832 Free PMC article.


The Metamorphosis of Autism: A History of Child Development in Britain.

Evans B.

Manchester (UK): Manchester University Press; 2017.

PMID: 28654228 Free Books & Documents. Review.


Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis and management.

[No authors listed]

London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK); 2016 Aug.

PMID: 32186834 Free Books & Documents. Review.


Making meaningful worlds: role-playing subcultures and the autism spectrum.

Fein E.

Cult Med Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;39(2):299-321. doi: 10.1007/s11013-015-9443-x.

PMID: 25812848 Free PMC article.


The myth of the normal brain: embracing neurodiversity.

Armstrong T.

AMA J Ethics. 2015 Apr 1;17(4):348-52. doi: 10.1001/journalofethics.2015.17.4.msoc1-1504.

PMID: 25901703 No abstract available.


Management of mental ill health in people with autism spectrum disorder.

Foley KR, Trollor J.

Aust Fam Physician. 2015;44(11):784-90.

PMID: 26590616 Review.


Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

Lorenz T, Heinitz K.

PLoS One. 2014 Jun 20;9(6):e100358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100358. eCollection 2014.

PMID: 24950060 Free PMC article.


What can physicians learn from the neurodiversity movement?

Nicolaidis C.

Virtual Mentor. 2012 Jun 1;14(6):503-10. doi: 10.1001/virtualmentor.2012.14.6.oped1-1206.

PMID: 23351267 No abstract available.


Autism: Recognition, Referral and Diagnosis of Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum.

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

London: RCOG Press; 2011 Sep.

PMID: 22624178 Free Books & Documents. Review.

Other PubMed Research on Neurodiversity


Hashtag who's missing? Lessons for genomic databases.

Villanueva AG, Majumder MA.

Disabil Health J. 2020 Jun 6:100945. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.100945. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32788131


Parent-identified strengths of autistic youth.

Warren N, Eatchel B, Kirby AV, Diener M, Wright C, D'Astous V.

Autism. 2020 Aug 5:1362361320945556. doi: 10.1177/1362361320945556. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32757622


The effect of school exposure and personal contact on attitudes towards bullying and autism in schools: A cohort study with a control group.

Cook A, Ogden J, Winstone N.

Autism. 2020 Jul 15:1362361320937088. doi: 10.1177/1362361320937088. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32668954


Comparing the writing skills of autistic and nonautistic university students: A collaboration with autistic university students.

Gillespie-Lynch K, Hotez E, Zajic M, Riccio A, DeNigris D, Kofner B, Bublitz D, Gaggi N, Luca K.

Autism. 2020 Jul 8:1362361320929453. doi: 10.1177/1362361320929453. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32640841


Does the heterogeneity of autism undermine the neurodiversity paradigm?

Hughes JA.

Bioethics. 2020 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/bioe.12780. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32542841


Brain-body interactions underlying the association of loneliness with mental and physical health.

Quadt L, Esposito G, Critchley HD, Garfinkel SN.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Sep;116:283-300. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.015. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

PMID: 32610178 Review.


What Contributes to Stigma Towards Autistic University Students and Students with Other Diagnoses?

Gillespie-Lynch K, Daou N, Obeid R, Reardon S, Khan S, Goldknopf EJ.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Jun 5:1-17. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04556-7. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32504342 Free PMC article.


A Clinical Program for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Neurodiverse/Autistic Adolescents Developed through Community-Based Participatory Design.

Strang JF, Knauss M, van der Miesen A, McGuire JK, Kenworthy L, Caplan R, Freeman A, Sadikova E, Zaks Z, Pervez N, Balleur A, Rowlands DW, Sibarium E, Willing L, McCool MA, Ehrbar RD, Wyss SE, Wimms H, Tobing J, Thomas J, Austen J, Pine E, Griffin AD, Janssen A, Gomez-Lobo V, Brandt A, Morgan C, Meagher H, Gohari D, Kirby L, Russell L, Powers MD, Anthony LG.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2020 May 6:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2020.1731817. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32375521


Neurodiversity and Autism Advocacy: Who Fits Under the Autism Tent?

Richman KA.

Am J Bioeth. 2020 May;20(4):33-34. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2020.1730493.

PMID: 32223633 No abstract available.


Our Neurodiverse Society: The Role of Advanced Technology.

Wiederhold BK.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2020 Jan;23(1):1-2. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2019.29171.bkw.

PMID: 31976766 No abstract available.


The Immersive Theater Experience for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Giserman-Kiss I, Gorenstein M, Feldman E, Rowe M, Grosman H, Weissman J, Rouhandeh A, Wilkinson E, Meyering K, Durkin A, Isenstein E, Kolevzon A, Buxbaum JD, Siper PM.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Mar;50(3):1073-1080. doi: 10.1007/s10803-019-04284-7.

PMID: 31797184


Neuro magnifico! An exploratory study critically reviewing news text reporting of anxiety-related work performance strengths, challenges and support measures.

Mellifont D.

Work. 2019;63(3):435-446. doi: 10.3233/WOR-192950.

PMID: 31282452


Reassessing health literacy best practices to improve medication adherence among patients with dyslexia.

Ritter A, Ilakkuvan V.

Patient Educ Couns. 2019 Nov;102(11):2122-2127. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2019.05.024. Epub 2019 May 27.

PMID: 31174951


International Society of Psychiatric Genetics Ethics Committee: Issues facing us.

Lázaro-Muñoz G, Sabatello M, Huckins L, Peay H, Degenhardt F, Meiser B, Lencz T, Soda T, Docherty A, Crepaz-Keay D, Austin J, Peterson RE, Davis LK; ISPG Ethics Committee.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2019 Dec;180(8):543-554. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32736. Epub 2019 May 23.

PMID: 31124312 Review.


Treatment for whom? Towards a phenomenological resolution of controversy within autism treatment.

Pantazakos T.

Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2019 Oct;77:101176. doi: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

PMID: 31003862


Narratives About Autism: An Analysis of YouTube Videos by Individuals Who Self-Identify as Autistic.

Angulo-Jiménez H, DeThorne L.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2019 May 27;28(2):569-590. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0045. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

PMID: 30995116


Evolutionary-developmental modeling of neurodiversity and psychopathology.

Kimbrough Oller D.

Behav Brain Sci. 2019 Jan;42:e19. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X18001103.

PMID: 30940277


Embracing Neurodiversity in Psychedelic Science: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into the MDMA Experiences of Autistic Adults.

Danforth AL.

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2019 Apr-Jun;51(2):146-154. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2019.1587116. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

PMID: 30909821


Neurodiversity: An insider's perspective.

den Houting J.

Autism. 2019 Feb;23(2):271-273. doi: 10.1177/1362361318820762. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

PMID: 30556743 No abstract available.


From Deficit Remediation to Capacity Building: Learning to Enable Rather Than Disable Students With Dyslexia.

Rappolt-Schlichtmann G, Boucher AR, Evans M.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2018 Oct 24;49(4):864-874. doi: 10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0031.

PMID: 30458546 Review.


Design and the Mind Engaging and Collaborative Workshops for the Neurodiverse.

Trotman N, McGinley C.

Stud Health Technol Inform. 2018;256:223-235.

PMID: 30371478


What am I thinking? Perspective-taking from the perspective of adolescents with autism.

Atherton G, Lummis B, Day SX, Cross L.

Autism. 2019 Jul;23(5):1186-1200. doi: 10.1177/1362361318793409. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

PMID: 30306792


At the Intersection of Neurodiversity and Gender Diversity.

van Schalkwyk GI.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 Dec;48(12):3973. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3735-2.

PMID: 30220017 No abstract available.


What Can Stutterers Learn from the Neurodiversity Movement?

Constantino CD.

Semin Speech Lang. 2018 Sep;39(4):382-396. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1667166. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

PMID: 30142648 Review.


The Research Domain Criteria: A new dawn for neurodiversity research?

Mandy W.

Autism. 2018 Aug;22(6):642-644. doi: 10.1177/1362361318782586. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

PMID: 29888612 No abstract available.


Autism and Accommodations in Higher Education: Insights from the Autism Community.

Sarrett JC.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 Mar;48(3):679-693. doi: 10.1007/s10803-017-3353-4.

PMID: 29243099


Editorial Perspective: Neurodiversity - a revolutionary concept for autism and psychiatry.

Baron-Cohen S.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 Jun;58(6):744-747. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12703.

PMID: 28524462


The complexities in conceptualizing neurodiversity: Comment on "Implications of the idea of neurodiversity for understanding the origins of developmental disorders" by Nobuo Masataka.

Harris YR.

Phys Life Rev. 2017 Mar;20:115-118. doi: 10.1016/j.plrev.2017.01.020. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

PMID: 28258853 No abstract available.


Disability, Diversity, and Autism: Philosophical Perspectives on Health.

Ripamonti L.

New Bioeth. 2016 Apr;22(1):56-70. doi: 10.1080/20502877.2016.1151256.

PMID: 28219280


The healing balm of nature: Understanding and supporting the naturalist intelligence in individuals diagnosed with ASD: Comment on: "Implications of the idea of neurodiversity for understanding the origins of developmental disorders" by Nobuo Masataka.

Armstrong T.

Phys Life Rev. 2017 Mar;20:109-111. doi: 10.1016/j.plrev.2017.01.012. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

PMID: 28117238 No abstract available.


Implications of the idea of neurodiversity for understanding the origins of developmental disorders.

Masataka N.

Phys Life Rev. 2017 Mar;20:85-108. doi: 10.1016/j.plrev.2016.11.002. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

PMID: 27876343 Review.


Interaction Design in the Built Environment: Designing for the 'Universal User'.

Dalton C.

Stud Health Technol Inform. 2016;229:314-23.

PMID: 27534322


Student life - Role of neurodiverse nurses.

Pace K.

Nurs Stand. 2016 Aug 10;30(50):35. doi: 10.7748/ns.30.50.35.s38.

PMID: 27507388


Predicting individualized clinical measures by a generalized prediction framework and multimodal fusion of MRI data.

Meng X, Jiang R, Lin D, Bustillo J, Jones T, Chen J, Yu Q, Du Y, Zhang Y, Jiang T, Sui J, Calhoun VD.

Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 15;145(Pt B):218-229. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.026. Epub 2016 May 10.

PMID: 27177764 Free PMC article.


Evolution in the Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Historical Perspective.

Mintz M.

Indian J Pediatr. 2017 Jan;84(1):44-52. doi: 10.1007/s12098-016-2080-8. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

PMID: 27053182 Review.