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Communication: Journalism: Cite Your Sources

Style Manuals

Citation Styles

The Modern Language Association style is used in the fields of language and literature. The following links can help:


The American Psychological Association style is used in the social sciences, communications, business, anthropology, and some of the life sciences.

The following links can help:
APA Style by OWL (scroll to bottom of page for links)
APA Style Guide to Electronic References (PDF)


The Chicago Manual of Style is used in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.

Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide Ask at the reference desk

From Ohio State University Libraries, based on The Chicago Manual of Style 15th ed. rev. (University of Chicago Press, 2003).

Note: Your instructor may direct you to use a format not included here, or may direct you to use a variation of one of these formats. Be sure to make yourself aware of each instructor's preference.


Plagiarism is a serious offense at East Carolina University. The ECU Student Handbook defines plagiarism as "Copying the language, structure, ideas, and/or thoughts of another and adopting same as one's own original work." For more information see Section II: Code of Conduct, Penalties, and Hearing Procedures for Students in the handbook.

Tips for avoiding plagiarism The First Year Writing Studio at ECU offers the following suggestions for avoiding plagiarism:

  • Place quotation marks around direct quotes.
  • Paraphrase your source information. This means more than rearranging the structure of a sentence or changing a few words. A good way to do this is to figure out what the source means to you and then writing this down without looking at the source.
  • Document all quotes and paraphrased information, and provide a Works Cited page at the end of your paper.
  • In your notes, record quotes, paraphrases, and summaries in an orderly manner so that the page number, source, author/editor, and publication information are carefully noted.

Links for more information

How to Avoid Plagiarism: An Online Tutorial
From Rutgers University

You Quote It, You Note It
From Acadia University

Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
From Duke University

Writing Center

Joyner Library location:

1st floor



Citation Builders