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AMA Citation Style 11th Edition Guide

AMA Manual of Style, 11th edition


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AMA 11th Edition

Citing Sources According to AMA 11th Edition Style Manual

This guide provides selected information on citing the literature using AMA style. When you need additional information, consult the AMA Manual of Style Online: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th ed.

Why Should You Cite?

According to the AMA Manual of Style, 11th edition ("Ch 3: References"):

“References serve 3 primary purposes—documentation, acknowledgement, and directing the reader to additional resources. Authors may cite a reference to support their own arguments or lay the foundation for their theses (documentation); as a credit to the work of other authors (acknowledgment); or direct the reader to more detail or additional resources (directing or linking).”

Paper Formatting Warning


The AMA Manual of Style 11th edition does not have very clear rules for formatting papers in AMA, as  the recommendation is to follow the rules of the journal you submit the manuscript to. Chapter 2: Manuscript Preparation for Submission and Publication contains the most guidance on overall paper formatting.


Plagiarism is a serious offense at East Carolina University. The ECU Student Handbook defines plagiarism as "Copying the language, structure, ideas, and/or thoughts of another and adopting same as one's own original work." For more information see The Code of Conduct.
Tips for avoiding plagiarism The First Year Writing Studio at ECU offers the following suggestions for avoiding plagiarism:

  • Place quotation marks around direct quotes.
  • Paraphrase your source information. This means more than rearranging the structure of a sentence or changing a few words. A good way to do this is to figure out what the source means to you and then writing this down without looking at the source.
  • Document all quotes and paraphrased information, and provide a Works Cited page at the end of your paper.
  • In your notes, record quotes, paraphrases, and summaries in an orderly manner so that the page number, source, author/editor, and publication information are carefully noted.

Links for more information

You Quote It, You Note It
From Acadia University

Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
From Duke University

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Heidi Reis
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