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Special and North Carolina Collections: Primary Sources: Citation

Primary sources in the library's Rare Books, Manuscripts, University Archives, and North Carolina Collections.

Citing Primary Sources

Primary sources can be tricky to cite because they come in so many formats; some also lack easily identifiable titles, authors, or dates. If you can't find an "official" title, author, or date, you may be able to infer one based on context. See below for sample Chicago-style note citationsof primary sources from Special Collections.

*If you are doing an assignment, ask your professor which style to use. Most require similar information, but the formats vary. A few of the most common are listed below to the right, and more can be found in our Citation Guide. Below to the left are general citation resources.

Citation Builders

Plagiarism Resources

Citation Examples

Letters and memos:

Venetia Cox to B.T. Cox, 2 August 1923, Folder l, Box , Venetia Cox Papers (#263), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Ledgers, diaries, and other bound volumes:

1880, Volume 1, Tarboro Temperance Society Minutes (#526), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Augustus M. Handley journal, 7 February 1859, Folder b, Box 1, A. M. Handley Journal (#1064), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Notes, minutes, and other unpublished text:

NEA Opera/Musical Theater Program grant proposal, Folder a, Box 410, Institute of Outdoor Theatre Archives (#1250), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Photographs:

Full Citation:

New graduates of Guangren Hospital Nurse School, undated, Folder g, Box 1, Lula M. Disosway Papers (#447), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Minimum Citation (for exhibits/brochures with limited space):

Lula M. Disosway Papers, Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Objects and memorabilia:

Autographed Tangerine Bowl football, 1965, Box 1, Clarence Stasavich Papers (#90-07), University Archives, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Newspapers on microfilm:

Meta Chestnutt, “Letter from the Far West” in The [Greenville, NC] Eastern Reflector, 4 February 1891, Microfilm Reel GvER-9-11, North Carolina Collection, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University.

Sources found in Digital Collections:

Citations for material that we have scanned and made available in our Digital Collections should be formatted similarly to citations for the originals. They should include the url and (if required by your professor) the date you accessed the material online, rather than box or folder numbers.

Venetia Cox to B.T. Cox, 2 August 1923, Venetia Cox Papers, Digital Collections, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, accessed 20 February 2017, http://digital.lib.ecu.edu/21901.

NEA Opera/Musical Theater Program grant proposal, 1986, Institute of Outdoor Theatre Archives, Digital Collections, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, accessed 1 December 2017, https://digital.lib.ecu.edu/35224.

New graduates of Guangren Hospital Nurse School, undated, Lula M. Disosway Papers, Digital Collections, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, accessed 4 December 2017,  https://digital.lib.ecu.edu/35246.

MLA Style

MLA Formatting and Style
courtesy of OWL at Purdue