Also known as academic journals, peer-reviewed journals, or refereed journals. These are distinguished from popular magazines or trade journals.
- Audience is made up of scholars, researchers, students of the field
- Written by specialists in the field, usually scholars with Ph.D.s -- are signed and often include author's credentials.
- Appearance is serious and sober, with few colors, few or no advertisements
- Coverage is original research results and scholarship
- Written in technical, scholarly language; may be reviewed or "refereed" before publication by an editorial board or outside scholars
- Articles are usually at least 7-10 pages in length
- Frequency is usually quarterly or semi-annual
- References are cited and usually includes a bibliography and/or footnotes
- Examples are Theatre Journal; Dance Research; Dance Research Journal.