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Breastfeeding: Exclusive Breastfeeding

Definition of Exclusive Breastfeeding

Exclusive breastfeeding for optimal growth, development and health of infants (World Health Organization, WHO)

Breastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.

Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution, or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines.

 

WHO recommendations

Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health.

Thereafter, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods, while continuing to breastfeed for up to two years or beyond.

From PubMed, Exclusive Breastfeeding

1.

Complementary medicine products used in pregnancy and lactation and an examination of the information sources accessed pertaining to maternal health literacy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

 

Barnes LAJ, Barclay L, McCaffery K, Aslani P.

 

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Jul 31;18(1):229. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2283-9. Review.

 

PMID: 30064415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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2.

Involving men to improve maternal and newborn health: A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions.

 

Tokhi M, Comrie-Thomson L, Davis J, Portela A, Chersich M, Luchters S.

 

PLoS One. 2018 Jan 25;13(1):e0191620. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191620. eCollection 2018. Review.

 

PMID: 29370258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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3.

Effectiveness of community-based peer support for mothers to improve their breastfeeding practices: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

 

Shakya P, Kunieda MK, Koyama M, Rai SS, Miyaguchi M, Dhakal S, Sandy S, Sunguya BF, Jimba M.

 

PLoS One. 2017 May 16;12(5):e0177434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177434. eCollection 2017. Review.

 

PMID: 28510603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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4.

Nutritional interventions or exposures in infants and children aged up to 3 years and their effects on subsequent risk of overweight, obesity and body fat: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

 

Patro-Gołąb B, Zalewski BM, Kołodziej M, Kouwenhoven S, Poston L, Godfrey KM, Koletzko B, van Goudoever JB, Szajewska H.

 

Obes Rev. 2016 Dec;17(12):1245-1257. doi: 10.1111/obr.12476. Epub 2016 Oct 17. Review.

 

PMID: 27749991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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5.

Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding.

 

Prell C, Koletzko B.

 

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016 Jun 24;113(25):435-44. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0435. Review.

 

PMID: 27397020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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6.

Impact of health professional training in breastfeeding on their knowledge, skills, and hospital practices: a systematic review.

 

de Jesus PC, de Oliveira MI, Fonseca SC.

 

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2016 Sep-Oct;92(5):436-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2015.09.008. Epub 2016 Feb 15. Review.

 

PMID: 26893208 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article

 

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7.

Infant feeding and risk of developing celiac disease: a systematic review.

 

Silano M, Agostoni C, Sanz Y, Guandalini S.

 

BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 25;6(1):e009163. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009163. Review.

 

PMID: 26810996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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8.

Breastfeeding Assessment Score: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

 

Raskovalova T, Teasley SL, Gelbert-Baudino N, Mauri PA, Schelstraete C, Massoutier M, Berger M, François P, Labarère J.

 

Pediatrics. 2015 May;135(5):e1276-85. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3072. Epub 2015 Apr 13. Review.

 

PMID: 25869379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article

 

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9.

Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.

 

Hermont AP, Martins CC, Zina LG, Auad SM, Paiva SM, Pordeus IA.

 

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Mar 16;12(3):3133-51. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120303133. Review.

 

PMID: 25785498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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10.

Incentives to promote breastfeeding: a systematic review.

 

Moran VH, Morgan H, Rothnie K, MacLennan G, Stewart F, Thomson G, Crossland N, Tappin D, Campbell M, Hoddinott P.

 

Pediatrics. 2015 Mar;135(3):e687-702. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2221. Epub 2015 Feb 2. Review.

 

PMID: 25647672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article

 

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11.

Factors associated to breastfeeding in the first hour of life: systematic review.

 

Esteves TM, Daumas RP, Oliveira MI, Andrade CA, Leite IC.

 

Rev Saude Publica. 2014 Aug;48(4):697-708. Review. English, Portuguese.

 

PMID: 25210829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

 

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